Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 61 (2009) 478–486
Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Ave, 53706-1322, USA Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Utah, 421 Wakara Way #318, Salt Lake City, UT 84108-3549, USA Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, 421 Wakara Way #318, Salt Lake City, UT 84108-3549, USA
Article history: Received 15 January 2009 Accepted 30 March 2009 Available online 21 April 2009
Abstract: The lack of correlative and predictive models to assess acute and chronic toxicities limits the rapid preclinical development of new therapeutics. This barrier is due in part to the exponential growth of nanotechnology and nanotherapeutics, coupled with the lack of rigorous and robust screening assays and putative standards. It is a fairly simple and cost-effective process to initially screen the toxicity of a nanomaterial by using in vitro cell cultures; unfortunately it is nearly impossible to imitate a complimentary in vivo system. Small mammalian models are the most common method used to assess possible toxicities and biodistribution of nanomaterials in humans. Alternatively, Danio rerio, commonly known as zebrafish, are proving to be a quick, cheap, and facile model to conservatively assess toxicity of nanomaterials.